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Title: Assessing the validity of eyelid parameters to detect impairment due to benzodiazepines.
Austin Authors: Wilkinson, Vanessa E ;Jackson, Melinda L ;Westlake, Justine;Stevens, Bronwyn ;Barnes, Maree ;Cori, Jennifer M ;Swann, Philip;Howard, Mark E 
Affiliation: Department of Road Safety, VicRoads, Kew, Victoria, Australia
School of Health & Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Issue Date: Mar-2020 2020-02-05
Publication information: Human Psychopharmacology 2020; 35(2): e2723
Abstract: Benzodiazepines impair driving ability and psychomotor function. Eyelid parameters accurately reflect drowsiness; however, the effects of benzodiazepines on these measures have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of benzodiazepines on eyelid parameters and evaluate their accuracy for detecting psychomotor impairment. Eyelid parameters were recorded during a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and driving simulation over 2 days, baseline, and after 20-mg oral temazepam. The utility of eyelid parameters for detecting PVT lapses was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves, and cut-off levels indicating impairment (≥1 and ≥2 PVT lapses per min) were identified. The accuracy of these cut-off levels for detecting driving simulator crashes was then examined. PVT and driving simulator performance was significantly impaired following benzodiazepine administration (p < .05). Average eyelid closure duration (inter-event duration) was a reliable indicator of PVT lapses (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.87-0.90). The cut-off value of eyelid closure duration derived from PVT AUC was able to predict driving simulator crashes with moderately high sensitivity and specificity (76.23% and 75.00%). Eyelid parameters were affected by benzodiazepines and accurately detected the psychomotor impairment. In particular, eyelid closure duration is a promising real-time indicator of benzodiazepine impairment.
DOI: 10.1002/hup.2723
ORCID: 0000-0002-1807-9189
Journal: Human Psychopharmacology
PubMed URL: 32022371
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: behavioural lapses
eye blinks
eyelid parameters
ocular measures
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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