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Title: Strategic Development of an Immunotoxin for the Treatment of Glioblastoma and Other Tumours Expressing the Calcitonin Receptor.
Austin Authors: Gupta, Pragya;Hare, David L ;Wookey, Peter J 
Affiliation: Medicine (University of Melbourne)
Issue Date: 8-Sep-2021
Date: 2021-09-08
Publication information: Cells 2021; 10(9): 2347
Abstract: New strategies aimed at treatment of glioblastoma are frequently proposed to overcome poor prognosis. Recently, research has focused on glioma stem cells (GSCs), some quiescent, which drive expansion of glioblastoma and provide the complexity and heterogeneity of the tumour hierarchy. Targeting quiescent GSCs is beyond the capability of conventional drugs such as temozolomide. Here, we discuss the proposal that the calcitonin receptor (CT Receptor), expressed in 76-86% of patient biopsies, is expressed by both malignant glioma cells and GSCs. Forty-two percent (42%) of high-grade glioma (HGG; representative of GSCs) cell lines available from one source express CT Receptor protein in cell culture. The pharmacological calcitonin (CT)-response profiles of four of the HGG cell lines were reported, suggesting mutational/splicing inactivation. Alternative splicing, commonly associated with cancer cells, could result in the predominant expression of the insert-positive isoform and explain the atypical pharmacology exhibited by CT non-responders. A role for the CT Receptor as a putative tumour suppressor and/or oncoprotein is discussed. Both CT responders and non-responders were sensitive to immunotoxins based on an anti-CT Receptor antibody conjugated to ribosomal-inactivating proteins. Sensitivity was increased by several logs with the triterpene glycoside SO1861, an endosomal escape enhancer. Under these conditions, the immunotoxins were 250-300 times more potent than an equivalent antibody conjugated with monomethyl auristatin E. Further refinements for improving the penetration of solid tumours are discussed. With this knowledge, a potential strategy for effective targeting of CSCs expressing this receptor is proposed for the treatment of GBM.
DOI: 10.3390/cells10092347
ORCID: 0000-0001-8617-0817
Journal: Cells
PubMed URL: 34571996
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: CT Receptor
G protein-coupled receptor
brain tumour
calcitonin receptor
glioma stem cells
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