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Title: Effect of dietary sources of calcium and protein on hip fractures and falls in older adults in residential care: cluster randomised controlled trial.
Austin Authors: Iuliano, Sandra ;Poon, S ;Robbins, J;Bui, M;Wang, Xiao-Fang ;De Groot, L;Van Loan, M;Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali ;Nguyen, T ;Seeman, Ego 
Affiliation: US Department of Agriculture-ARS, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia
University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia
School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands
Medicine (University of Melbourne)
Issue Date: 20-Oct-2021
Date: 2021-10-20
Publication information: BMJ 2021; 375: n2364
Abstract: To assess the antifracture efficacy and safety of a nutritional intervention in institutionalised older adults replete in vitamin D but with mean intakes of 600 mg/day calcium and <1 g/kg body weight protein/day. Two year cluster randomised controlled trial. 60 accredited residential aged care facilities in Australia housing predominantly ambulant residents. 7195 permanent residents (4920 (68%) female; mean age 86.0 (SD 8.2) years). Facilities were stratified by location and organisation, with 30 facilities randomised to provide residents with additional milk, yoghurt, and cheese that contained 562 (166) mg/day calcium and 12 (6) g/day protein achieving a total intake of 1142 (353) mg calcium/day and 69 (15) g/day protein (1.1 g/kg body weight). The 30 control facilities maintained their usual menus, with residents consuming 700 (247) mg/day calcium and 58 (14) g/day protein (0.9 g/kg body weight). Group differences in incidence of fractures, falls, and all cause mortality. Data from 27 intervention facilities and 29 control facilities were analysed. A total of 324 fractures (135 hip fractures), 4302 falls, and 1974 deaths were observed. The intervention was associated with risk reductions of 33% for all fractures (121 v 203; hazard ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.93; P=0.02), 46% for hip fractures (42 v 93; 0.54, 0.35 to 0.83; P=0.005), and 11% for falls (1879 v 2423; 0.89, 0.78 to 0.98; P=0.04). The risk reduction for hip fractures and falls achieved significance at five months (P=0.02) and three months (P=0.004), respectively. Mortality was unchanged (900 v 1074; hazard ratio 1.01, 0.43 to 3.08). Improving calcium and protein intakes by using dairy foods is a readily accessible intervention that reduces the risk of falls and fractures commonly occurring in aged care residents. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000228785.
DOI: 10.1136/bmj.n2364
ORCID: 0000-0003-3900-2030
Journal: BMJ
PubMed URL: 34670754
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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