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Title: The effect of net gas volume changes on alveolar and arterial gas partial pressures in the presence of ventilation-perfusion mismatch.
Austin Authors: Korman, Ben;Dash, Ranjan K;Peyton, Philip J 
Affiliation: Biomedical Engineering and Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, United States
Department of Anaesthesia, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, Australia
Issue Date: 6-Dec-2018 2018-12-06
Publication information: Journal of applied physiology 1985; online first: 6 December
Abstract: The second gas effect (SGE) occurs when nitrous oxide enhances the uptake of volatile anesthetics administered simultaneously. Recent work shows that the SGE is greater in blood than in the gas phase, that this is due to ventilation-perfusion mismatch, that as mismatch increases, the SGE increases in blood but is diminished in the gas phase, and that these effects persist well into the period of nitrous oxide maintenance anesthesia. These modifications of the SGE are most pronounced with the low soluble agents in current use. We investigate further the effect of net gas volume loss during nitrous oxide uptake on low concentrations of other gases present using partial pressure solubility diagrams. The steady-state equations of gas exchange were solved assuming a log normal distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios using Lebesgue-Stieltjes integration. It was shown that under these conditions, the classical partial pressure-solubility diagram must be modified, that for currently used volatile anesthetic agents the alveolar-arterial partial pressure difference is less than that predicted in the past, and that the alveolar-arterial partial pressure difference may even be reversed during uptake in the case of highly insoluble gases such as sulfur hexafluoride. Comparing this with the situation described previously for nitrogen in steady-state air breathing, we show that for nitrogen, the direction of the alveolar-arterial gradient is opposite to the direction of net gas volume movement. Although gas uptake with ventilation-perfusion inequality exceeding that when matching is optimal, is shown to be possible, it is less likely than alveolar-arterial partial pressure reversal.
DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00689.2018
PubMed URL: 30521424
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Alveolar-arterial partial pressure gradient
Anesthetic uptake
Mathematical modeling
Second gas effect
Ventilation-perfusion mismatch
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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