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Title: Parathyroid hormone deficiency and excess: similar effects on trabecular bone but differing effects on cortical bone.
Austin Authors: Duan, Yunbo;De Luca, V;Seeman, Ego 
Affiliation: Department of Endocrinology, Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Australia
Issue Date: 1-Feb-1999
Publication information: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; 84(2): 718-22
Abstract: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be anabolic at trabecular bone and catabolic in cortical bone. As many regions of the skeleton contain both types of bone, the effects of PTH deficiency or excess may be difficult to evaluate using bone densitometry, a technique that integrates the cortical and trabecular compartments of bone. We asked the following questions: 1) Is the higher bone mineral density (BMD) in postsurgical hypoparathyroidism due to higher cortical, not trabecular, bone? 2) Is age-related bone loss slowed in patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism? 3) Is lower BMD in primary hyperparathyroidism the result of deficits in cortical, not trabecular, bone? BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, distal radius, and femoral midshaft was measured by postero-anterior (PA) scanning, while bone mineral content (BMC) of the third lumbar vertebra was measured by lateral scanning using dual x-ray absorptiometry in 10 women, ages 64.6 +/- 3.2 yr, with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism and in 25 women, ages 68.7 +/- 1.6 yr, with primary hyperparathyroidism. Measurements were repeated 4.7 +/- 0.6 yr later in 8 patients with hypoparathyroidism and 4.0 +/- 0.4 yr later in 20 age-matched controls. Data were expressed as z scores (SD, mean +/- sem) derived from 405 postmenopausal women. In patients with hypoparathyroidism, bone mass z score of the third lumbar vertebra (vertebral body plus posterior processes) was higher than zero by PA scanning (1.26 +/- 0.58 SD, P < 0.05) and lateral scanning (1.04 +/- 0.60 SD, P = 0.1), and higher at the trabecular-rich vertebral body (1.02 +/- 0.47 SD, P = 0.07) and predominantly cortical posterior processes (0.98 +/- 0.66 SD, P = 0.1) determined by lateral scanning. The BMD z scores were higher than zero at the femoral neck (0.89 +/- 0.48 SD, P = 0.09), but not at the femoral midshaft (0.45 +/- 0.60, NS) and distal radius (0.04 +/- 0.51, NS). During follow-up, femoral neck BMD decreased in controls but not in patients with hypoparathyroidism (slope, -0.00818 +/- 0.00496 g/cm2/year vs. 0.00907 +/- 0.00583 g/cm2/year, respectively, P = 0.06). There was no change in lumbar spine BMD in either group. In 25 women with primary hyperparathyroidism, there were no deficits in BMD at the third lumbar vertebra (vertebral body plus posterior processes) by PA or lateral scanning. By lateral scanning, BMC was increased at the vertebral body (0.64 +/- 0.31 SD, P < 0.01) and reduced at the posterior processes (-0.65 +/- 0.26 SD, P < 0.05). BMD was lower at the midshaft of the femur (-0.82 +/- 0.37 SD, P < 0.05) and at the distal radius (-0.68 +/- 0.20 SD, P < 0.01), but not at the femoral neck (-0.08 +/- 0.20 SD, NS). Longitudinal data were unavailable in hyperparathyroid patients. In summary, trabecular bone is increased by both PTH deficiency and excess. Cortical bone loss is slowed by PTH deficiency and accelerated by PTH excess so that suppression of PTH may reduce age-related bone loss and the risk of fracture. Assessment of BMD in PTH deficiency and excess requires the separate study of cortical and trabecular bone.
Gov't Doc #: 10022443
DOI: 10.1210/jcem.84.2.5498
Journal: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Absorptiometry, Photon
Bone Density
Cross-Sectional Studies
Longitudinal Studies
Lumbar Vertebrae
Middle Aged
Parathyroid Hormone.deficiency.physiology
Postoperative Complications
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