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Title: Brain MRI-guided focused ultrasound conceptualised as a tool for brain network intervention.
Austin Authors: Permezel, Fiona 
Affiliation: The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health
Austin Health
Issue Date: Aug-2021
Date: 2021-07-02
Publication information: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2021; 90: 370-379
Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has emerged as a tool offering incisionless intervention on brain tissue. The low risk and rapid recovery from this procedure, in addition to the ability to assess for clinical benefit and adverse events intraprocedurally, makes it an ideal tool for intervention upon brain networks both for clinical and research applications. This review article proposes that conceptualising brain focused ultrasound as a tool for brain network intervention and adoption of methodology to complement this approach may result in better clinical outcomes, fewer adverse events and may unveil or allow treatment opportunities not otherwise possible. A brief introduction to network neuroscience is discussed before a description of pathological brain networks is provided for a number of conditions for which MRI-guided brain HIFU intervention has been implemented. Essential Tremor is discussed as the most advanced example of MRI-guided brain HIFU intervention adoption along with the issues that present with this treatment modality compared to alternatives. The brain network intervention paradigm is proposed to overcome these issues and a number of examples of implementation of this are discussed. The ability of low intensity MRI guided focussed ultrasound to neuromoduate brain tissue without lesioning is introduced. This tool is discussed with regards to its potential clinical application as well as its potential to further our understanding of network neuroscience via its ability to interrogate brain networks without damaging tissue. Finally, a number of current clinical trials utilising brain focused ultrasound are discussed, along with the additional applications available from the utilisation of low intensity focused ultrasound.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jocn.2021.05.062
Journal: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
PubMed URL: 34275578
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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