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Title: ATP1A2- and ATP1A3-associated early profound epileptic encephalopathy and polymicrogyria.
Austin Authors: Vetro, Annalisa;Nielsen, Hang N;Holm, Rikke;Hevner, Robert F;Parrini, Elena;Powis, Zoe;Møller, Rikke S;Bellan, Cristina;Simonati, Alessandro;Lesca, Gaétan;Helbig, Katherine L;Palmer, Elizabeth E;Mei, Davide;Ballardini, Elisa;Haeringen, Arie Van;Syrbe, Steffen;Leuzzi, Vincenzo;Cioni, Giovanni;Curry, Cynthia J;Costain, Gregory;Santucci, Margherita;Chong, Karen;Mancini, Grazia M S;Clayton-Smith, Jill;A-Collaborators, Atp A/;Bigoni, Stefania;Scheffer, Ingrid E ;Dobyns, William B;Vilsen, Bente;Guerrini, Renzo
Affiliation: Pediatric Neurology, Neurogenetics and Neurobiology Unit and Laboratories, Meyer Children's Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales, Randwick, NSW, Australia
Centre for Clinical Genetics, Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia
Department of Regional Health Services, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
Department of Epilepsy Genetics and Personalized Medicine Danish Epilepsy Centre, Filadelfia, Denmark
DIBINEM, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark
Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, IRCCS, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy
University of Melbourne, and Royal Children's Hospital, Florey and Murdoch Institutes, Melbourne, Australia
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark
Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA
Pediatric Neurology, Neurogenetics and Neurobiology Unit and Laboratories, Meyer Children's Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Ambry Genetics, Aliso Viejo, CA, USA
Department of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Bolognini Hospital, ASST-Bergamo Est, Seriate, Italy
Neurology (Child Neurology and Neuropathology), Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
Department of Medical Genetics, Member of the ERN EpiCARE, University Hospital of Lyon, Lyon, France
Division of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Pediatric Neurology, Neurogenetics and Neurobiology Unit and Laboratories, Meyer Children's Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Section, Department of Medical Sciences, Ferrara University, Ferrara, Italy
Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
Division of Pediatric Epileptology, Centre for Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Department of Human Neuroscience, Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris, Pisa, Italy
Genetic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco/Fresno, CA, USA
Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
The Prenatal Diagnosis and Medical Genetics Program, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, University of Manchester, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK
Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Mother and Child, Ferrara University Hospital, Ferrara, Italy
Department of Pediatrics (Genetics), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark
Pediatric Neurology, Neurogenetics and Neurobiology Unit and Laboratories, Meyer Children's Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Austin Health
Issue Date: 22-Jun-2021
Date: 2021-04-21
Publication information: Brain : a journal of neurology 2021; 144(5): 1435-1450
Abstract: Constitutional heterozygous mutations of ATP1A2 and ATP1A3, encoding for two distinct isoforms of the Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) alpha-subunit, have been associated with familial hemiplegic migraine (ATP1A2), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ATP1A2/A3), rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia-areflexia-progressive optic atrophy, and relapsing encephalopathy with cerebellar ataxia (all ATP1A3). A few reports have described single individuals with heterozygous mutations of ATP1A2/A3 associated with severe childhood epilepsies. Early lethal hydrops fetalis, arthrogryposis, microcephaly, and polymicrogyria have been associated with homozygous truncating mutations in ATP1A2. We investigated the genetic causes of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies variably associated with malformations of cortical development in a large cohort and identified 22 patients with de novo or inherited heterozygous ATP1A2/A3 mutations. We characterized clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological findings, performed in silico and in vitro assays of the mutations' effects on the NKA-pump function, and studied genotype-phenotype correlations. Twenty-two patients harboured 19 distinct heterozygous mutations of ATP1A2 (six patients, five mutations) and ATP1A3 (16 patients, 14 mutations, including a mosaic individual). Polymicrogyria occurred in 10 (45%) patients, showing a mainly bilateral perisylvian pattern. Most patients manifested early, often neonatal, onset seizures with a multifocal or migrating pattern. A distinctive, 'profound' phenotype, featuring polymicrogyria or progressive brain atrophy and epilepsy, resulted in early lethality in seven patients (32%). In silico evaluation predicted all mutations to be detrimental. We tested 14 mutations in transfected COS-1 cells and demonstrated impaired NKA-pump activity, consistent with severe loss of function. Genotype-phenotype analysis suggested a link between the most severe phenotypes and lack of COS-1 cell survival, and also revealed a wide continuum of severity distributed across mutations that variably impair NKA-pump activity. We performed neuropathological analysis of the whole brain in two individuals with polymicrogyria respectively related to a heterozygous ATP1A3 mutation and a homozygous ATP1A2 mutation and found close similarities with findings suggesting a mainly neural pathogenesis, compounded by vascular and leptomeningeal abnormalities. Combining our report with other studies, we estimate that ∼5% of mutations in ATP1A2 and 12% in ATP1A3 can be associated with the severe and novel phenotypes that we describe here. Notably, a few of these mutations were associated with more than one phenotype. These findings assign novel, 'profound' and early lethal phenotypes of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies and polymicrogyria to the phenotypic spectrum associated with heterozygous ATP1A2/A3 mutations and indicate that severely impaired NKA pump function can disrupt brain morphogenesis.
DOI: 10.1093/brain/awab052
Journal: Brain : a journal of neurology
PubMed URL: 33880529
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: ATP1A2
Na+/K+-ATPase pump
developmental and epileptic encephalopathy
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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