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Title: New generation continuous cardiac output monitoring from carbon dioxide elimination.
Austin Authors: Peyton, Philip J ;Wallin, Mats;Hallbäck, Magnus
Affiliation: Maquet Critical Care, AB, Rontgenvagen 2, S-17154, Solna, Sweden
Anaesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine Unit, Melbourne Medical School, University of Melbourne
Karolinska Institute Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Anaesthesia, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Issue Date: 26-Feb-2019
Date: 2019-02-26
Publication information: BMC anesthesiology 2019; 19(1): 28
Abstract: There is continuing interest among clinicians in the potential for advanced hemodynamic monitoring and "goal directed" intravenous fluid administration guided by minimally-invasive cardiac output measurement to reduce complication rates in high risk patients undergoing major surgery. However, the adoption of the available technologies has been limited, due to cost, complexity and reliability of measurements provided. We review progress in the development of new generation methods for continuous non-invasive monitoring of cardiac output from measurement of carbon dioxide elimination in ventilated patients using the Differential Fick method. The history and underlying theoretical basis are described, and its recent further development and implementation using modern generation anesthesia monitoring and delivery systems by two separate but parallel methods, termed "Capnotracking" and "Capnodynamics". Both methods generate breath-by-breath hands-free cardiac output monitoring from changes in carbon dioxide elimination produced by automatic computerized modulation of respiratory rate delivered by an electronic ventilator. Extensive preclinical validation in animal models of hemodynamic instability, with implanted ultrasonic flow probes for gold standard reference measurements, shows this approach delivers reliable, continuous cardiac output measurement in real time. The accuracy and precision of measurement by the Capnodynamic method were maintained under a wide range of both hemodynamic and respiratory conditions, including inotropic stimulation, vasodilatation, hemorrhage, caval compression, alveolar lavage, changes in tidal volume and positive end-expiratory pressure, and hypercapnia, with only brief derangement observed in a model of lower body ischemia involving release of prolonged aortic occlusion by an intra-aortic balloon. Phase 2 testing of a Capnotracking system in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and liver transplantation has achieved a percentage error of agreement with thermodilution of +/- 38.7% across a wide range of hemodynamic states. Progress in development of these technologies suggest that a robust, automated and reliable method of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring from capnography is close at hand for use in major surgery and critical care. The great advantage of this approach is that it can be fully integrated into the anesthesia machine and ventilator, using components that are already standard in modern anesthesia and intensive care workstations, and should be virtually hands-free and automatic.
DOI: 10.1186/s12871-019-0699-5
ORCID: 0000-0003-1185-2869
Journal: BMC anesthesiology
PubMed URL: 30808309
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Carbon dioxide
Cardiac output
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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