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Title: An unexpected diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus-2 infection in an overseas visitor: a case report.
Austin Authors: Sohail, Asma;Van Leer, Lyndal;Holmes, Natasha E 
Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of General Medicine, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Issue Date: 4-Mar-2017 2017-03
Publication information: BMC research notes 2017; 10(1): 116
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus 2 infection is endemic in West Africa but is also found in parts of Europe, North and South America, and India where it is thought to have been introduced secondary to migration and commercial trade ties. It is less common than Human immunodeficiency virus 1, with differences in pathogenicity, lower rates of transmission, longer asymptomatic period and slower progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human immunodeficiency virus 2 is also associated with diagnostic challenges given the lack of commercially available diagnostic tests, and management challenges given intrinsic resistance to many anti-retroviral therapies. We describe a case of a 65 year old South Indian female, visiting her family in Australia, who presented with weight loss, pancytopaenia and generalised lymphadenopathy on a background of newly diagnosed congestive cardiac failure. Multiple investigations were performed to elucidate the cause of her presentation, with the eventual unexpected diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus 2. She was commenced on anti-retroviral treatment and made a remarkable recovery. We describe the challenges associated with diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus 2 due to lack of commercially available diagnostics, as well as the treatment and management challenges including the fact that human immunodeficiency virus 2 is intrinsically resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Human immunodeficiency virus 2 infection should be considered in patients who present with symptoms and signs that do not point towards a clear diagnosis, such as unexplained pancytopaenia or lymphadenopathy, and who have risk factors such as being from an endemic area or having had blood transfusions, especially prior to the commencement of blood-borne virus screening of blood donors.
DOI: 10.1186/s13104-017-2438-7
ORCID: 0000-0002-1716-8518
PubMed URL: 28259182
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Antiretroviral therapy
Diagnostic testing
Human immunodeficiency virus-2
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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