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Title: Non-invasive estimation of cardiac index in healthy volunteers.
Austin Authors: Eyeington, C T;Ancona, P;Cioccari, Luca;Luethi, N;Glassford, Neil J;Eastwood, Glenn M ;Proimos, H K;Franceschi, F;Chan, M J;Jones, , Australia;Bellomo, Rinaldo 
Affiliation: Department of Anaesthesia, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre (ANZIC-RC), School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Intensive Care Unit, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Issue Date: May-2018
Publication information: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 2018; 46(3): 290-296
Abstract: The primary objective was to non-invasively measure the cardiac index (CI) and associated haemodynamic parameters of healthy volunteers and their changes with age. This was a single centre, prospective, observational study of healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 59 years, using the ClearSight™ (Edwards Life Sciences, Irvine, CA, USA) device. We recorded 514 observations in 97 participants. The mean CI was 3.5 l/min/m<sup>2</sup> (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.4 to 3.7 l/min/m<sup>2</sup>). The mean stroke volume index (SVI) was 47 ml/m<sup>2</sup> (95% CI 45 to 49 ml/m<sup>2</sup>) and the mean systemic vascular resistance index was 2,242 dyne.s/cm<sup>5</sup>/m<sup>2</sup> (95% CI 2,124 to 2,365 dyne.s/cm<sup>5</sup>/m<sup>2</sup>). There was an inverse linear relationship between increasing age and CI (<i>P</i> <0.0001), which decreased by 0.044 l/min/m<sup>2</sup> (95% CI  -0.032 to -0.056 l/min/m<sup>2</sup>) per year. This change was mostly due to a decrease in SVI of 0.45 ml/m<sup>2</sup> (95% CI 0.32 to 0.57 ml/m<sup>2</sup>) per year (<i>P</i> <0.0001). The mean CI of young healthy humans is approximately 3.5 l/min/m<sup>2</sup> and declines by approximately 40 ml/min/m<sup>2</sup> per year, mostly due to a decline in stroke volume (SV). These findings have significant implications regarding the clinical interpretation of haemodynamic parameters and the application of these results to individual patients.
ORCID: 0000-0002-1650-8939
Journal: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
PubMed URL: 29716487
ISSN: 0310-057X
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: cardiac index
cardiac output
haemodynamic monitoring
healthy volunteers
Stroke volume
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