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Title: Travel vaccination recommendations and endemic infection risks in solid organ transplantation recipients
Austin Authors: Trubiano, Jason A ;Johnson, Douglas F;Sohail, Asma;Torresi, Joseph 
Affiliation: Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Infectious Diseases, Peter MaCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
Department of General Medicine, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Eastern Infectious Diseases and Travel medicine, Knox Private Hospital, Boronia, Victoria, Australia
Issue Date: 13-Sep-2016 2016-09-13
Publication information: Journal of Travel Medicine 2016; online first: 13 September
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are often heavily immunosuppressed and consequently at risk of serious illness from vaccine preventable viral and bacterial infections or with endemic fungal and parasitic infections. We review the literature to provide guidance regarding the timing and appropriateness of vaccination and pathogen avoidance related to the immunological status of SOT recipients. METHODS: A PUBMED search ([Vaccination OR vaccine] AND/OR ["specific vaccine"] AND/OR [immunology OR immune response OR cytokine OR T lymphocyte] AND transplant was performed. A review of the literature was performed in order to develop recommendations on vaccination for SOT recipients travelling to high-risk destinations. RESULTS: Whilst immunological failure of vaccination in SOT is primarily the result of impaired B-cell responses, the role of T-cells in vaccine failure and success remains unknown. Vaccination should be initiated at least 4 weeks prior to SOT or more than 6 months post-SOT. Avoidance of live vaccination is generally recommended, although some live vaccines may be considered in the specific situations (e.g. yellow fever). The practicing physician requires a detailed understanding of region-specific endemic pathogen risks. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a vaccination and endemic pathogen guide for physicians and travel clinics involved in the care of SOT recipients. In addition, recommendations based on timing of anticipated immunological recovery and available evidence regarding vaccine immunogenicity in SOT recipients are provided to help guide pre-travel consultations.
DOI: 10.1093/jtm/taw058
PubMed URL:
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Solid organ transplant
Antibody response
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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