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Title: Present and future of osteoporosis therapy.
Austin Authors: Seeman, Ego ;Tsalamandris, Con;Bass, S;Pearce, G
Affiliation: Department of Endocrinology, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Melbourne, Australia
Issue Date: 1-Aug-1995
Publication information: Bone; 17(2 Suppl): 23S-29S
Abstract: In the 50-year "modern" history of osteoporosis, there have been about 17 antifracture studies with sufficient attention to design to allow inference regarding efficacy. Antivertebral fracture efficacy has been reported with etidronate, estrogen patch, calcitonin, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Two studies using fluoride were positive, and two were negative. Hip fractures have been neglected. One study showed efficacy of hip protectors, one showed efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in nursing home dwellers. The source of most hip fractures is the community. One community based antihip fracture efficacy study using annual injections of vitamin D was positive. There have been no antivertebral or antihip fracture studies in men, or in corticosteroid-related osteoporosis in men or women. Lack of independently repeated demonstration of efficacy, small fracture numbers, and data pooling in some of these (the best) studies leave great uncertainty. Estrogen and bisphosphonates appear to be the best options at this time. New data suggest that calcium supplementation is likely to reduce the rate of bone loss and perhaps reduce fracture rates. The challenge is to maintain and restore the constituents of bone mineral density (BMD), that is: to promote periosteal and endosteal bone formation; reduce endosteal bone resorption and cortical porosity; and increase trabecular thickness, number, and connectivity. There are many opportunities, for instance, intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone strength and, with estrogen, may increase connectivity. The anabolic effects of PTH may be partly mediated by IGF-1. IGF-1 increases periosteal, endosteal, and trabecular bone formation, cortical and trabecular width, and trabecular and endocortical connectivity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Gov't Doc #: 8579894
Journal: Bone
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Bone Density.drug effects.physiology
Bone Development.drug effects
Bone Resorption.drug therapy
Calcitonin.administration & dosage.pharmacology.therapeutic use
Calcitriol.administration & dosage.pharmacology.therapeutic use
Calcium, Dietary.administration & dosage.therapeutic use
Diphosphonates.administration & dosage.pharmacology.therapeutic use
Drug Delivery Systems
Estrogens.administration & dosage.pharmacology.therapeutic use
Etidronic Acid.administration & dosage.pharmacology.therapeutic use
Fluorides.administration & dosage.pharmacology.therapeutic use
Fractures, Spontaneous.prevention & control
Hip Fractures.prevention & control
Osteoporosis.physiopathology.prevention & control.therapy
Parathyroid Hormone.administration & dosage.pharmacology.therapeutic use
Spinal Fractures.prevention & control
Structure-Activity Relationship
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