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Title: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA): their detection and significance: report from workshops.
Austin Authors: Savige, Judy A;Davies, D J;Gatenby, P A
Affiliation: University of Melbourne Department of Medicine, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria.
Issue Date: 1-Apr-1994
Publication information: Pathology; 26(2): 186-93
Abstract: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are antibodies directed against enzymes that are found mainly within the azurophil or primary granules of neutrophils. There are 3 types of ANCA that can be distinguished by the patterns they produce by indirect immunofluorescence when tested on normal ethanol-fixed neutrophils. Diffuse fine granular cytoplasmic fluorescence (cANCA) is typically found in Wegener's granulomatosis, in some cases of microscopic polyarteritis and Churg Strauss syndrome, and in some cases of crescentic and segmental necrotising glomerulonephritis, but it is rare in other conditions. The target antigen is usually proteinase 3. Perinuclear fluorescence (pANCA) is found in many cases of microscopic polyarteritis and in other cases of crescentic and segmental necrotising glomerulonephritis. These antibodies are often directed against myeloperoxidase but other targets include elastase, cathepsin G, lactoferrin, lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase. The third group designated "atypical" ANCA includes neutrophil nuclear fluorescence and some unusual cytoplasmic patterns, and while a few of the target antigens are shared with pANCA, the others have not been identified. Sera that produce a pANCA or atypical ANCA pattern on alcohol-fixed neutrophils result in cytoplasmic fluorescence when formalin acetone fixation is used. pANCA or atypical ANCA occur in about 2/3 of all individuals with ulcerative colitis or primary sclerosing cholangitis, and they are found in a third of patients with Crohn's disease. The reported incidence of ANCA in rheumatoid arthritis and SLE varies considerably but the patterns are predominantly pANCA and atypical ANCA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Gov't Doc #: 8090592
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Animals
Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic
Biological Markers.analysis
Disease Models, Animal
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis.drug therapy.immunology
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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