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Title: Outcomes of contemporary management of gangrenous and non-gangrenous acute cholecystitis.
Austin Authors: Nikfarjam, Mehrdad ;Niumsawatt, Vachara;Sethu, Arun;Fink, Michael A ;Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan ;Starkey, Graham;Jones, Robert M ;Christophi, Christopher 
Affiliation: Department of Surgery, Austin Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Issue Date: 3-Jun-2011
Publication information: Hpb : the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association 2011; 13(8): 551-8
Abstract: Gangrenous cholecystitis (GC) is considered a more severe form of acute cholecystitis. The risk factors associated with this condition and its impact on morbidity and mortality compared with those of non-gangrenous acute cholecystitis (NGAC) are poorly defined and based largely on findings from older studies.Patients with histologically confirmed acute cholecystitis treated in specialized units in a tertiary hospital between 2005 and 2010 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Data were reviewed retrospectively and patients with GC were compared with those with NGAC.A total of 184 patients with NGAC and 106 with GC were identified. The risk factors associated with GC included older age (69 years vs. 57 years; P= 0.001), diabetes (19% vs. 10%; P= 0.049), temperature of >38 °C (36% vs. 16%; P < 0.001), tachycardia (31% vs. 15%; P= 0.002), detection of muscle rigidity on examination (27% vs. 12%; P= 0.01) and greater elevations in white cell count (WCC) (13.4 × 10⁹/l vs. 10.7 × 10⁹/l; P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (94 mg/l vs. 17 mg/l; P= 0.001), bilirubin (19 µmol/l vs. 17 µmol/l; P= 0.029), urea (5.3 mmol/l vs. 4.7 mmol/l; P= 0.016) and creatinine (82 µmol/l vs. 74 µmol/l; P= 0.001). The time from admission to operation in days was greater in the GC group (median = 1 day, range: 0-14 days vs. median = 1 day, range: 0-10 days; P= 0.029). There was no overall difference in complication rates between the GC and NGAC groups (22% vs. 14%; P= 0.102). There was a lower incidence of common bile duct stones in the GC group (5% vs. 13%; P= 0.017). Gangrenous cholecystitis was associated with increased mortality (4% vs. 0%; P= 0.017), but this was not an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis.Gangrenous cholecystitis has certain clinical features and associated laboratory findings that may help to differentiate it from NGAC. It is not associated with an overall increase in complications when treated in a specialized unit.
Gov't Doc #: 21762298
DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-2574.2011.00327.x
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Adolescent
Aged, 80 and over
Chi-Square Distribution
Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic.adverse effects.mortality
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Predictive Value of Tests
Proportional Hazards Models
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment
Risk Factors
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
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