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Title: Impact of blood flow occlusion on liver necrosis following thermal ablation.
Austin Authors: Nikfarjam, Mehrdad ;Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan ;Malcontenti-Wilson, Caterina;McLaren, Wendy;Christophi, Christopher 
Affiliation: Department of Surgery, University of Melbourne, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Townsend Building Level 8, Studley Road, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084, Australia
Issue Date: 2-Jan-2006
Publication information: ANZ Journal of Surgery; 76(1-2): 84-91
Abstract: Laser, radiofrequency and microwave are common techniques for local destruction of liver tumours by thermal ablation. The main limitation of thermal ablation treatment is the volume of necrosis that can be achieved. Blood flow occlusion is commonly advocated as an adjunct to thermal ablation to increase the volume of tissue necrosis based on macroscopic and histological assessment of immediate or direct thermal injury. This study examines the impact of blood flow occlusion on direct and indirect laser induced thermal liver injury in a murine model using histochemical methods to assess tissue vitality.Thermal ablation produced by neodymium yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser (wavelength 1064 nm) was applied to the liver of inbred male CBA strain mice at 2 W for 50 s (100 J). Treatment was performed with and without temporary portal vein and hepatic artery blood flow occlusion. Animals were killed upon completion of the procedure to assess direct thermal injury or at 24, 48 and 72 h to assess the progression of tissue damage. The maximum diameter of necrosis was assessed by vital staining for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) diaphorase. Microvascular changes were assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, confocal in vivo microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.The direct thermal injury (mean SE) assessed by NADH diaphorase staining was significantly greater following thermal ablation treatment without blood flow occlusion than with blood flow occlusion (3.3 (0.4) mm vs 2.9 (0.3) mm; P = 0.005). Tissue disruption, cracking and vacuolization was more pronounced adjacent to the fibre insertion site in the group treated with thermal ablation combined with blood flow occlusion. There was an equivalent increase in the extent of injury following therapy in both groups that reached a peak at 48 h. The maximum diameter of necrosis in the thermal ablation alone group at 48 h was significantly greater than the thermal ablation combined with blood flow occlusion group (5.8 (0.4) mm vs 5.3 (0.3) mm; P = 0.011). The patterns of microvascular injury were similar in both groups, varying in extent.Temporary blood flow inflow occlusion appears to decrease the extent of initial injury measured by vital staining techniques and does not alter the time sequence of progressive tissue injury following thermal ablation therapy.
Gov't Doc #: 16483304
DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-2197.2006.03559.x
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Animals
Laser Therapy
Laser-Doppler Flowmetry
Liver.blood supply.pathology
Mice, Inbred CBA
Microscopy, Confocal
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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