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dc.contributor.authorBozier, Jack-
dc.contributor.authorChivers, Emily K-
dc.contributor.authorChapman, David G-
dc.contributor.authorLarcombe, Alexander N-
dc.contributor.authorBastian, Nicole-
dc.contributor.authorMasso-Silva, J A-
dc.contributor.authorByun, M K-
dc.contributor.authorMcDonald, Christine F-
dc.contributor.authorAlexander Crotty, Laura E-
dc.contributor.authorWeen, Miranda P-
dc.identifier.citationChest 2020; online first: 29 Januaryen_US
dc.description.abstractSmoking continues to be a burden to economies and healthcare systems across the world. One proposed solution to the problem has been e-cigarettes; however, as a relatively new product in the market, little is known about their potential health impacts. Furthermore, e-cigarettes continue to evolve at a rapid rate, making it necessary to regularly review and synthesize available studies. Whilst e-cigarettes are marketed as a smoking cessation tool by some manufacturers, the reality is that many non-smokers, including youth, are using them. In this review we focus on two major demographics - smokers and non-smokers, and evaluate the most recent data (2018-2019) regarding the potential health effects of e-cigarettes. We assessed peer-reviewed studies on health impacts of e-cigarettes with particular focus on common questions asked by policy makers, clinicians, and scientists: 1. What are the effects of e-cigarettes compared with air/not-smoking?; 2. Is there any direct evidence of harm or benefit to humans?; 3. Is there a risk from second-hand exposure?; 4. What are the risks and/or benefits of e-cigarettes compared with tobacco cigarette use?; 5. Are there risks or benefits to specific populations - people with COPD or asthma, and pregnant women (and their offspring)?; 6. What are the effects of flavoring chemicals?; 7. What are the effects of including nicotine in e-liquids?; 8. How often is nicotine-level labelling incorrect? and 9. What are the risks when e-cigarettes explode?en_US
dc.titleThe Evolving Landscape of Electronic Cigarettes: A systematic review of recent evidence.en_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationSchool of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australiaen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationSchool of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australiaen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationDepartment of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Critical Care & Sleep, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USAen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationDivision of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Koreaen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationWoolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australiaen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationDepartment of Thoracic Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA, Australiaen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationRespiratory and Sleep Medicineen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationInstitute for Breathing and Sleepen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationTelethon Kids Institute, Perth, WA, Australiaen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationSchool of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australiaen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationSchool of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australiaen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationSchool of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australiaen_US
dc.identifier.affiliationPulmonary Critical Care Section, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USAen_US
dc.type.austinJournal Article-
dc.type.austinReview-, Christine F
item.fulltextNo Fulltext-
item.openairetypeJournal Article-
item.openairecristype for Breathing and Sleep- and Sleep Medicine-
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