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dc.contributor.authorWest, Henry-
dc.contributor.authorFitzgerald, John-
dc.contributor.authorHopkins, Katherine-
dc.contributor.authorLi, Eric-
dc.contributor.authorClark, Nicolas-
dc.contributor.authorTzanetis, Stephanie-
dc.contributor.authorGreene, Shaun L-
dc.contributor.authorReid, Gavin E-
dc.identifier.citationJournal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 2021-10-06; 32(10): 2604-2614en
dc.description.abstractInspired by Locard's exchange principle, which states "every contact leaves a trace", a trace residue sampling strategy has been developed for the analysis of discarded drug packaging samples (DPS), as part of an early warning system for illicit drug use at large public events including music/dance festivals. Using direct analysis in real time/mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, rapid and high-throughput identification and characterization of a wide range of illicit drugs and adulterant substances was achieved, including in complex polydrug mixtures and at low relative ion abundances. A total of 1362 DPS were analyzed either off-site using laboratory-based instrumentation or on-site and in close to real time using a transportable mass spectrometer housed within a mobile analytical laboratory, with each analysis requiring less than 1 min per sample. Of the DPS analyzed, 92.2% yielded positive results for at least one of 15 different drugs and/or adulterants, including cocaine, MDMA, and ketamine, as well as numerous novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Also, 52.6% of positive DPS were found to contain polydrug mixtures, and a total of 42 different drug and polydrug combinations were observed throughout the study. For analyses performed on-site, reports to key stakeholders including event organizers, first aid and medical personnel, and peer-based harm reduction workers could be provided in as little as 5 min after sample collection. Following risk assessment of the potential harms associated with their use, drug advisories or alerts were then disseminated to event staff and patrons and subsequently to the general public when substances with particularly toxic properties were identified.en
dc.titleEarly Warning System for Illicit Drug Use at Large Public Events: Trace Residue Analysis of Discarded Drug Packaging Samples.en
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.identifier.journaltitleJournal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometryen
dc.identifier.affiliationSchool of Social and Political Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationDepartment of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationBio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationAgilent Technologies Australia, Mulgrave, Victoria 3170, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationNorth Richmond Community Health, Richmond, Victoria 3121, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationRoyal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3050, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationHarm Reduction Victoria, North Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationHarm Reduction Australia, Leura, New South Wales 2780, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationVictorian Poisons Information Centreen
dc.identifier.affiliationDepartment of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Victoria 3010, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationSchool of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australiaen
dc.identifier.pubmedid34460248-, Shaun L
item.fulltextNo Fulltext-
item.openairetypeJournal Article-
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