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Title: Dimorphism in axial and appendicula dimensions, cortical and trabecular microstructure and matrix mineral density in Chinese and Caucasian women.
Austin Authors: Wang, Xiao-Fang ;Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali ;Zhou, Bin;Guo, X Edward;Zhang, Zhendong;Seeman, Ego 
Affiliation: Medicine (University of Melbourne)
Mary MacKillop Institute of Heathly Aging, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia
Bone Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
Issue Date: 19-Aug-2019
Date: 2019-08-19
Publication information: Bone 2019; 128: 115039
Abstract: Appendicular fractures are less common in Chinese than Caucasian women. Bone mineral density (BMD) is lower, not higher than in Caucasians because Chinese have smaller appendicular dimensions than Caucasians. However, smaller bones may offset the liability to fracture by being assembled with a more robust microstructure. We hypothesized that Chinese assemble an appendicular skeleton with a thicker, less porous and more mineralized cortex that is less deteriorated in advanced age than in Caucasians. We compared anthropometry in 477 Chinese and 278 Caucasian women and compared bone microstructure using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography in another cohort of 186 Chinese and 381 Caucasian women aged 18 to 86 years, all living in Melbourne, Australia. Trabecular plate (p) and rod (r) bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) were quantified using individual trabecula segmentation (ITS). Bone strength was estimated using micro-finite element analysis (μFEA). Premenopausal Chinese were shorter than Caucasian women, mainly due to shorter leg length. Distal radial total cross sectional area (CSA) was 14.8% smaller (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and total CSA, Chinese had similar cortical and medullary areas but 0.30 SD lower cortical porosity and 0.27 SD higher matrix mineral density (both p < 0.05). Trabecular plate-to-rod ratio was 0.55 SD higher due to a 0.41 SD higher pBV/TV and 0.36 SD lower rBV/TV (p ranging 0.001 to 0.023). Chinese also had 0.36 SD greater whole bone stiffness and 0.36 SD greater failure load than Caucasians (both p < 0.05). After adjusting for age and total CSA, postmenopausal Chinese had 3.3% smaller cortical area, medullary area was 2.1% larger, cortical porosity was no lower, matrix mineral density and pBV/TV were no higher compared with Caucasians at the distal radius. Whole bone stiffness was 0.39 SD lower and failure load was 0.40 SD lower in Chinese (both p < 0.05). Chinese build a more robust skeleton than Caucasians during growth, an advantage not observed in advanced age due to greater bone loss or race-specific secular trends in bone morphology.
DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2019.115039
ORCID: 0000-0002-9692-048X
Journal: Bone
PubMed URL: 31437567
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Bone microstructure
Racial dimorphism
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