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Title: A systematic review of potential long-term effects of sport-related concussion.
Austin Authors: Manley, Geoff;Gardner, Andrew J;Schneider, Kathryn J;Guskiewicz, Kevin M;Bailes, Julian;Cantu, Robert C;Castellani, Rudolph J;Turner, Michael;Jordan, Barry D;Randolph, Christopher;Dvořák, Jiří;Hayden, K Alix;Tator, Charles H;McCrory, Paul R;Iverson, Grant L
Affiliation: Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre, Faculty of Kinesiology; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute for Child & Maternal Health, Cumming School of Medicine; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Centre for Stroke and Brain Injury, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle; Hunter New England Local Health District Sports Concussion Program, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, Australia
The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne Brain Centre, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Canadian Concussion Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Krembil Neuroscience Centre, Toronto, Canada
Department of Nerology, University of Zurich, Schulthess Clinic, Swiss Concussion Center, Zurich, Switzerland
Libraries and Cultural Resources, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Matthew Gfeller Sport-Related TBI Research Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA
Department of Neurological Surgery, Brain and Spinal Injury Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA
The International Concussion and Head Injury Research Foundation, Marylebone, UK
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School; Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital; MassGeneral Hospital for Children Sports Concussion Program; & Home Base, a Red Sox Foundation and Massachusetts General Hospital Program, Boston, USA
Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, USA
Burke Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, USA
Center for Neuropathology, Western Michigan University, and Homer Stryker MD School of Medicine, Kalamazoo, USA
Department of Neurosurgery, Emerson Hospital, Concord, MA, and Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, USA
Department of Neurosurgery, NorthShore University Health System, Co-Director, NorthShore Neurological Institute; University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Evanston, USA
Issue Date: Jun-2017
Date: 2017-04-28
Publication information: British journal of sports medicine 2017; 51(12): 969-977
Abstract: Systematic review of possible long-term effects of sports-related concussion in retired athletes. Ten electronic databases. Original research; incidence, risk factors or causation related to long-term mental health or neurological problems; individuals who have suffered a concussion; retired athletes as the subjects and possible long-term sequelae defined as >10 years after the injury. Study population, exposure/outcome measures, clinical data, neurological examination findings, cognitive assessment, neuroimaging findings and neuropathology results. Risk of bias and level of evidence were evaluated by two authors. Following review of 3819 studies, 47 met inclusion criteria. Some former athletes have depression and cognitive deficits later in life, and there is an association between these deficits and multiple prior concussions. Former athletes are not at increased risk for death by suicide (two studies). Former high school American football players do not appear to be at increased risk for later life neurodegenerative diseases (two studies). Some retired professional American football players may be at increased risk for diminishment in cognitive functioning or mild cognitive impairment (several studies), and neurodegenerative diseases (one study). Neuroimaging studies show modest evidence of macrostructural, microstructural, functional and neurochemical changes in some athletes. Multiple concussions appear to be a risk factor for cognitive impairment and mental health problems in some individuals. More research is needed to better understand the prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurological conditions and diseases, and the extent to which they are related to concussions and/or repetitive neurotrauma sustained in sports.
DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2017-097791
ORCID: 0000-0002-0926-3128
Journal: British Journal of Sports Medicine
PubMed URL: 28455362
Type: Journal Article
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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