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|Title:||Thyroid nodules: diagnosis and management.|
|Authors:||Wong, Rosemary;Farrell, Stephen G;Grossmann, Mathis|
|Affiliation:||Eastern Health, Melbourne, VIC|
Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
|Citation:||The Medical journal of Australia 2018; 209(2): 92-98|
|Abstract:||Thyroid nodules are common. Their importance lies in the need to assess thyroid function, degree of and future risk of mass effect, and exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 7-15% of thyroid nodules. There are four key components to thyroid nodule assessment: clinical history and examination, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement, ultrasound and, if indicated, fine-needle aspiration (FNA). If the serum TSH is suppressed, a thyroid scan with 99Tc can distinguish between a solitary hot nodule, a toxic multinodular goitre or, less commonly, thyroiditis or Graves' disease within a coexisting nodular thyroid. Scintigraphically cold nodules are evaluated in the same way as in the setting of normal or elevated serum TSH levels. Thyroid ultrasonography should be performed only for palpable goitre and thyroid nodules and by specialists with expertise in thyroid sonography. Routine thyroid cancer screening is not recommended, except in high risk individuals, as the detection of early thyroid cancer has not been shown to improve survival. FNA may be performed for nodules ≥ 1.0 cm depending on clinical and sonographic risk factors for thyroid cancer. FNA specimens should be read by an experienced cytopathologist and be reported according to the Bethesda Classification System. Molecular analysis of indeterminate FNA samples has potential to better discriminate benign from malignant nodules and thus guide management. Surgery is indicated for FNA findings of malignancy or indeterminate cytology when there is a high risk clinical context. Surgery may also be indicated for suspicion of malignancy; larger nodules, especially with symptoms of mass effect; and in some patients with thyrotoxicosis.|
|Appears in Collections:||Journal articles|
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