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Title: Dapagliflozin improves insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a novel transgenic rat model of chronic glucose overproduction and glucose toxicity.
Authors: Joannides, Christos N;Mangiafico, Salvatore P;Waters, Matthew F;Lamont, Benjamin J;Andrikopoulos, Sofianos
Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Austin Health, The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia
Issue Date: Aug-2017
EDate: 2017-04-06
Citation: Diabetes, obesity & metabolism 2017; 19(8): 1135-1146
Abstract: To determine whether the excretion of glucose improves insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion or both. Appropriate methods were used to assess insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp) and insulin secretion (hyperglycaemic clamp) in insulin-resistant and hyperglycaemic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) transgenic rats after treatment with the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin. In 14-week-old rats with hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, 6 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment resulted in lower weight gain, plasma glucose and insulin levels, and improved glucose tolerance, associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity (rate of glucose disappearance: 51.6 ± 2.3 vs 110.6 ± 3.9 µmol/min/kg; P < .005) and glucose uptake in muscle (0.9 ± 0.1 vs 1.7 ± 0.3 µmol/min/100 g; P < .05) and fat (0.23 ± 0.04 vs 0.55 ± 0.10 µmol/min/100 g, P < .05). Additionally, adipose tissue GLUT4 protein levels were increased (0.78 ± 0.05 vs 1.20 ± 0.09 arbitrary units; P < .05), adipocyte count was higher (221.4 ± 17.7 vs 302.3 ± 21.7 per mm2 fat area; P < .05) and adipocyte size was reduced (4631.8 ± 351.5 vs 3397.6 ± 229.4 µm2 , P < .05). There was no improvement, however, in insulin secretion. To determine whether earlier intervention is necessary, 5-week-old PEPCK transgenic rats were treated with dapagliflozin for 9 weeks and insulin secretion assessed. Dapagliflozin resulted in improved plasma glucose and insulin levels, and lower weight gain but, again, insulin secretion was not improved. In this transgenic model of low-grade chronic hyperglycaemia, SGLT2 inhibitor treatment resulted in reduced blood glucose and insulin levels and enhanced glucose tolerance, associated with improved muscle and fat insulin resistance but not improved insulin secretory function.
DOI: 10.1111/dom.12923
ORCID: 0000-0002-8932-8592
PubMed URL: 28244693
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: SGLT2 inhibitor
antidiabetic drug
glucose metabolism
insulin resistance
insulin secretion
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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