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dc.contributor.authorDi Biase, M A-
dc.contributor.authorZalesky, A-
dc.contributor.authorO'keefe, G-
dc.contributor.authorLaskaris, L-
dc.contributor.authorBaune, B T-
dc.contributor.authorWeickert, C S-
dc.contributor.authorOlver, James S-
dc.contributor.authorMcGorry, P D-
dc.contributor.authorAmminger, G P-
dc.contributor.authorNelson, B-
dc.contributor.authorScott, Andrew M-
dc.contributor.authorHickie, I-
dc.contributor.authorBanati, R-
dc.contributor.authorTurkheimer, F-
dc.contributor.authorYaqub, M-
dc.contributor.authorEverall, I P-
dc.contributor.authorPantelis, C-
dc.contributor.authorCropley, V-
dc.identifier.citationTranslational psychiatry 2017; 7(8): e1225-
dc.description.abstractWe examined putative microglial activation as a function of illness course in schizophrenia. Microglial activity was quantified using [11C](R)-(1-[2-chrorophynyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3 isoquinoline carboxamide (11C-(R)-PK11195) positron emission tomography (PET) in: (i) 10 individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis; (ii) 18 patients recently diagnosed with schizophrenia; (iii) 15 patients chronically ill with schizophrenia; and, (iv) 27 age-matched healthy controls. Regional-binding potential (BPND) was calculated using the simplified reference-tissue model with four alternative reference inputs. The UHR, recent-onset and chronic patient groups were compared to age-matched healthy control groups to examine between-group BPND differences in 6 regions: dorsal frontal, orbital frontal, anterior cingulate, medial temporal, thalamus and insula. Correlation analysis tested for BPND associations with gray matter volume, peripheral cytokines and clinical variables. The null hypothesis of equality in BPND between patients (UHR, recent-onset and chronic) and respective healthy control groups (younger and older) was not rejected for any group comparison or region. Across all subjects, BPND was positively correlated to age in the thalamus (r=0.43, P=0.008, false discovery rate). No correlations with regional gray matter, peripheral cytokine levels or clinical symptoms were detected. We therefore found no evidence of microglial activation in groups of individuals at high risk, recently diagnosed or chronically ill with schizophrenia. While the possibility of 11C-(R)-PK11195-binding differences in certain patient subgroups remains, the patient cohorts in our study, who also displayed normal peripheral cytokine profiles, do not substantiate the assumption of microglial activation in schizophrenia as a regular and defining feature, as measured by 11C-(R)-PK11195 BPND.-
dc.titlePET imaging of putative microglial activation in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis, recently diagnosed and chronically ill with schizophrenia.-
dc.typeJournal Article-
dc.identifier.journaltitleTranslational psychiatry-
dc.identifier.affiliationMelbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, VIC, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationNeuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, NSW, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationSchizophrenia Research Institute, Randwick, NSW, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationDepartment of Neuroimaging, King's College London, London, UKen
dc.identifier.affiliationVU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlandsen
dc.identifier.affiliationDepartment of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationMelbourne School of Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationDepartment of Molecular Imaging and Therapy, The University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, VIC Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationDepartment of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, and La Trobe University, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationDiscipline of Psychiatry, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationSchool of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationCentre for Youth Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationOrygen, The National Centre of Excellence in Youth Mental Health, Parkville, VIC, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationBrain &Mind Centre, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationMedical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationNorth Western Mental Health, Melbourne Health, Parkville, VIC, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationFlorey Institute for Neurosciences and Mental Health, Parkville, VIC, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationCentre for Neural Engineering, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Carlton South, VIC, Australia-
dc.identifier.affiliationCooperative Research Centre for Mental Health, Carlton, VIC, Australia-
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