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|Title:||Tolvaptan for Heart Failure in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.|
|Authors:||Sen, Jonathan;Chung, Erin;McGill, Darryl|
|Affiliation:||Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia|
Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Canberra Hospital, Garran, ACT, Australia
The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
|Citation:||Heart, lung & circulation 2018; 27(8): 928-939|
|Abstract:||Heart failure (HF) is frequently associated with renal impairment. Tolvaptan is reported to be effective in treating congestion in HF without significant electrolyte loss compared to conventional diuretics. However, the safety and efficacy of its use in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety outcomes of tolvaptan for HF management in patients with CKD, with a focus at a physiologic basis related to safety. We searched for observational studies and randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that assessed the effects of tolvaptan against placebo or standard care in adult patients with HF and CKD. Our protocol was registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42017052775). Seventeen studies were included in the qualitative review and six in the meta-analysis involving 1597 patients. Tolvaptan was associated with an increase in sodium concentration. No significant differences in change of eGFR and serum creatinine were found between tolvaptan and control groups. Urine flow rate appears to increase significantly with tolvaptan compared to baseline (p<0.0001). The meta-analysis demonstrated no heterogeneity between studies but the possibility of publication bias due to incomplete reporting in excluded studies and lack of RCTs. The safety profile of tolvaptan appears acceptable for patients with HF and CKD. There is evidence for an improvement in serum sodium and reduction in body water without deterioration in renal function. Further research is needed to elucidate the long-term benefits of tolvaptan as an adjunct or alternative to diuretics in such patients.|
|Appears in Collections:||Journal articles|
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