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Title: Does left ventricular hypertrophy affect cognition and brain structural integrity in type 2 diabetes? Study design and rationale of the Diabetes and Dementia (D2) study
Authors: Patel, Sheila K;Restrepo, Carolina;Werden, Emilio;Churilov, Leonid;Ekinci, Elif I;Srivastava, Piyush M;Ramchand, Jay;Wai, Bryan;Chambers, Brian R;O’Callaghan, Christopher J;Darby, David;Hachinski, Vladimir;Cumming, Toby B;Donnan, Geoffrey A;Burrell, Louise M;Brodtmann, Amy
Issue Date: 7-Apr-2017
Citation: BMC Endocrine Disorders 2017; 17(1): 24
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and there is a strong association between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. However, we do not know which type 2 diabetes patients will dement or which biomarkers predict cognitive decline. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is potentially such a marker. LVH is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes and is a strong, independent predictor of cardiovascular events. To date, no studies have investigated the association between LVH and cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes and Dementia (D2) study is designed to establish whether patients with type 2 diabetes and LVH have increased rates of brain atrophy and cognitive decline. METHODS: The D2 study is a single centre, observational, longitudinal case control study that will follow 168 adult patients aged >50 years with type 2 diabetes: 50% with LVH (case) and 50% without LVH (control). It will assess change in cardiovascular risk, brain imaging and neuropsychological testing between two time-points, baseline (0 months) and 24 months. The primary outcome is brain volume change at 24 months. The co-primary outcome is the presence of cognitive decline at 24 months. The secondary outcome is change in left ventricular mass associated with brain atrophy and cognitive decline at 24 months. DISCUSSION: The D2 study will test the hypothesis that patients with type 2 diabetes and LVH will exhibit greater brain atrophy than those without LVH. An understanding of whether LVH contributes to cognitive decline, and in which patients, will allow us to identify patients at particular risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12616000546459 ), date registered, 28/04/2016.
DOI: 10.1186/s12902-017-0173-7
ORCID: 0000-0003-1863-7539
PubMed URL:
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Alzheimer’s disease
D2 study
Left ventricular hypertrophy
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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