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dc.contributor.authorArcher, John Sen
dc.contributor.authorWarren, Aaron E Len
dc.contributor.authorStagnitti, Monique Ren
dc.contributor.authorMasterton, Richard A Jen
dc.contributor.authorAbbott, David Fen
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Graeme Den
dc.identifier.citationEpilepsia 2014; 55(8): 1245-54en
dc.description.abstractLennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe epilepsy phenotype with characteristic electroclinical features despite diverse etiologies. We previously found common cerebral networks involved during slow spike-and-wave (SSW) and generalized paroxysmal fast activity (PFA), characteristic interictal discharges. Some patients have a Lennox-Gastaut-like phenotype and cortical lesions. We wished to explore the interaction between cerebral networks and lesions in this group.3 Tesla electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) on six subjects with Lennox-Gastaut phenotype and a structural lesion. Timings of SSW and PFA events were used in an event-related fMRI analysis, and to estimate the time course of the hemodynamic response from key regions.(1) PFA-robust fMRI signal increases were observed in frontal and parietal association cortical areas, thalamus, and pons, with simultaneous increases in both "attention" and resting-state (default mode) networks, a highly unusual pattern. (2) SSW showed mixed increased and decreased fMRI activity, with preevent increases in association cortex and thalamus, and then prominent postevent reduction. There was decreased fMRI activity in primary cortical areas. (3) Lesion-variable fMRI increases were observed during PFA and SSW discharges. Three subjects who proceeded to lesionectomy are >1 year seizure-free.We conceptualize Lennox-Gastaut phenotype as a being a network epilepsy, where key cerebral networks become autonomously unstable. Epileptiform activity in Lennox-Gastaut phenotype, and by implication in LGS, appears to be amplified and expressed through association cortical areas, possibly because the attention and default-mode networks are widely interconnected, fundamental brain networks. Seizure freedom in the subjects who proceeded to lesionectomy suggests that cortical lesions are able to establish and maintain this abnormal unstable network behavior. LGS may be considered a secondary network epilepsy because the unifying epileptic manifestations of the disorder, including PFA and SSW, reflect network dysfunction, rather than the specific initiating process.en
dc.subject.otherLennox-Gastaut syndromeen
dc.subject.otherSecondary generalized epilepsyen
dc.subject.otherCerebral Cortex.physiopathologyen
dc.subject.otherIntellectual Disability.diagnosis.physiopathologyen
dc.subject.otherLennox Gastaut Syndromeen
dc.subject.otherNerve Net.physiopathologyen
dc.subject.otherSpasms, Infantile.diagnosis.physiopathologyen
dc.titleLennox-Gastaut syndrome and phenotype: secondary network epilepsies.en
dc.typeJournal Articleen
dc.identifier.affiliationAustin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationThe Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australiaen
dc.identifier.affiliationDepartment of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australiaen
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