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Title: What is the evidence for chronic concussion-related changes in retired athletes: behavioural, pathological and clinical outcomes?
Authors: McCrory, Paul;Meeuwisse, Willem H;Kutcher, Jeffrey S;Jordan, Barry D;Gardner, Andrew
Affiliation: Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084, Australia.
Issue Date: 1-Apr-2013
Citation: British Journal of Sports Medicine; 47(5): 327-30
Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to review the current state of evidence for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in retired athletes and to consider the potential differential diagnoses that require consideration when retired athletes present with cognitive and psychiatric problems.MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Mosby's Index, PsycEXTRA, PsycINFO and Scopus. Key words included CTE, dementia pugilistica, punch drunk syndrome, traumatic encephalopathy, CTE, repetitive head injury, sports concussion, multiple concussions, chronic concussions, subconcussive blow and sports-related traumatic brain injury.At present, there are no published epidemiological, cross-sectional or prospective studies relating to modern CTE. Owing to the nature of the published studies, being case reports or pathological case series, it is not possible to determine the causality or risk factors with any certainty. As such, the speculation that repeated concussion or subconcussive impacts cause CTE remains unproven. The extent to which age-related changes, psychiatric or mental health illness, alcohol/drug use or coexisting dementing illnesses contribute to this process is largely unaccounted for in the published literature.At present, the interpretation of causation in the modern CTE case studies should proceed cautiously. The causal assumptions require further prospective or longitudinal studies on the topic.
Internal ID Number: 23479493
DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092248
Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Age Factors
Athletic Injuries.etiology.pathology.psychology
Brain Injury, Chronic.pathology.psychology
Cognition Disorders.etiology
Depressive Disorder.etiology
Diagnosis, Differential
Neurodegenerative Diseases.etiology
Post-Concussion Syndrome.etiology.pathology.psychology
Appears in Collections:Journal articles

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